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Sexual health

Sexual health diseases also known as sexually transmitted infections (STI) or venereal diseases (VD) constitute a group of the infectious and parasitic diseases transmitted by means of human sexual behaviour.

Apart from sexually transmitted infections, other diseases can be contracted by means of human sexual behaviour as well. These includes genital warts caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), trichomoniasis, candidal vulvovaginitis, genital herpes, scabies, crab lice and others.

The laboratory diagnostics of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) contain direct bacteriological tests, cultures, serologic and enzyme-linked immunosorbent methods.

Direct bacteriological tests consist of examining material from lesions.

Diagnostic tests

No  Test type Description
1 Chlamydia trachomatis Chlamydia is a genus of bacteria settling in the secretion released by genitals. However, it may affect the rectum, pharynx and eyes as well. There are often no symptoms of the infection.
In women, Chlamydia infection manifests itself in leucorrhoea, painful urination, abdominal pain and breakthrough bleedings. One of the most serious complications is salpingitis (an inflammation of fallopian tubes) which can in the end result in infertility.
In men, Chlamydia infection manifests itself in strong burning of the urethra, urethrorrhoea and additionally in pollakiuria.
2 Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Detecting bacteria in the genitourinary system, culture, determining sensitivity
3 Bacterial vaginosis Bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of vaginal infections.
4 Yeast-like fungi Direct preparation, culture, determining sensitivity (antimycogram)
5 Trichomoniasis Direct preparation, culture. Trichomoniasis is caused by the single-celled parasite Trichomonas vaginalis which use flagella to move. Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection. The parasites multiply within an acidic environment. They can be transmitted also during a lesbian sexual intercourse. The symptoms of Trichomoniasis are hardly noticeable at the beginning and sometimes visible only after a year. The first symptoms are itching and inflammation of the vagina and vulva, burning sensation during urination as well as yellowish, frothy and foul discharge.
6 Gonorrhoea
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Direct preparation, culture, evaluating biochemical characteristics. Similar to Chlamydia infection, gonorrhoea is an infection of mucous membranes
 causing itching and burning of the urethra. However, it occurs less often than Chlamydia infection. After a certain period of time thick purulent discharge starts flowing out from the external urethral orifice. Women can suffer from complications such as salpingitis (an inflammation of fallopian tubes).
7 HIV AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is a disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The virus lives in bodily fluids – blood, sperm and sometimes in saliva. It destroys blood cells called lymphocytes which are responsible for protecting the organism from diseases. Because of that the disease is called “Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome”. The first infection symptoms resemble influenza. Afterwards the disease becomes usually latent for a few years. There are no noticeable symptoms, although the immune system keeps fighting the virus. The virus can enter the body through an open skin wound or the mucous membrane lining the rectum, vagina or mouth.
8 Bacteriological culture Culture, determining the sensitivity to antibiotics (antibiogram). Detecting Group B streptococcus – asymptomatic carrier in pregnant women
9 Syphilis
Treponema pallidum
Typical serological reactions – USR, VDRL, treponemal tests for syphilis, (FTA, FTA-ABS, IgM FTA-ABS), syphilis TPHA test, treponema immobilization reaction (TP).
Syphilis is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum which spreads through the circulatory system. Syphilis can be congenital or acquired via direct sexual contacts. Approximately 3 weeks after the infection, small red skin pimples appear at the point of contact, usually on the genitals, lips or the tongue. The pimples dry out and drop off revealing ulceration. The wound heals itself and disappears. It does not mean, however, that the infection is over. 6 weeks after the infection a rash can affect all the skin. It is accompanied by the swelling of lymph nodes and flu-like symptoms that disappear spontaneously. The third stage manifests itself as arthritis and afterwards as cardiac arrhythmia and neurological disorders. Syphilis in all its stages is treated with penicillin.  
10 Toxoplasmosis
Toxoplasma gondii
Serological tests – detecting class IgM and IgG antibodies
11 Lyme disease
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato
Serological tests – detecting class IgM and IgG antibodies
12 Giardiasis
Giardia lamblia
Serological tests – detecting class IgM and IgG antibodies
13 Helicobacter pylori Serological tests, detecting antibodies in blood serum. Direct examination – detecting antigens in faeces.
14 Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) Method of indirect immunofluorescence
15 Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody Method of indirect immunofluorescence
16 Mycological tests Direct preparation, culture, antimycogram. Tests done from the hairy head skin, smooth skin and nails.
17 Human papillomavirus (HPV)  Detecting the genetic material of human papillomavirus (HPV).
Warts develop as a result of the activity of HPV virus transmitted during sexual intercourses. The changes around the genitals become visible within 1-3 months after the infection. The warts tend to disseminate.
18 Sexual Health Profile 1  Urine Chlamydia – Genital Swab for Culture
19 Sexual Health Profile 2  Urine Chlamydia – Genital Swab for Culture – HIV 1 & 2
20 Sexual Health Profile 3  Urine Chlamydia – Genital Swab for Culture – HIV 1 & 2 – Syphilis by VDRL
21 Sexual Health Profile 4  Urine Chlamydia – Genital Swab for Culture – HIV 1 & 2 – Syphilis by VDRL – Hepatitis B Surface Antigen
22 Sexual Health Profile 5  Urine Chlamydia – Genital Swab for Culture – HIV 1 & 2 – Syphilis by VDRL – Hepatitis B Surface Antigen, Antibody - Hep C
23 THIN Prep + HPV Profile